Major national and international initiatives are in place to address emissions from the energy and industrial sectors, but there are no comparable carbon provisions for agriculture. A significant barrier has been the absence of viable methods for assessing agricultural emissions, sequestration, and storage. This project will provide a practical approach to landscape-level carbon accounting. The group will use statistical methods to identify the minimum data set required for rigorous but cost-effective monitoring of changes in soil health in complex agricultural landscapes. This new methodology will support emerging efforts to promote and regulate climate-friendly agriculture in the United States and around the world.